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Technical Resources

Abrasive Grains

Aluminum Oxide 

Used for a broad range of applications, Aluminum Oxide is the most commonly used abrasive for general purpose work including ferrous and non-ferrous metals, wood and solid surfaces.


Used for heavy material removal on all types of metals, Zirconia Alumina is a long-life premium abrasive that delivers aggressive cutting action while grit particles continually produce new sharp points. It’s great for titanium, hard steel, and stainless steel.


While producing outstanding results, Ceramic is a long-life premium abrasive, used for medium to heavy material removal on aerospace alloys, aluminum, carbon steels, nickel alloys, cast iron, forgings, and some stainless steels.

Silicon Carbide 

Used to obtain excellent results on concrete, stone, glass, plastics and very hard materials like titanium. A brittle self-sharpening grain.

Compact Grain 

Lasting a very long time, Compact Grainhas a uniform scratch pattern and is very strong. It re-sharpens itself as it’s used.

Surface Conditioning Color Codes

Coarse is colored brown and used for deburring and heavy surface material removal.

Medium is colored maroon and used for moderate to light cleaning, blending, and surface material removal.

Very Fine is colored blue and used for removing fine scratch marks and lines, final finishing, polishing, and preparing surfaces for painting.

Super Fine is colored gray and used for finishing, buffing, and fine polishing.

Grinding Wheel Hardness

Hardness is rated from A-Z with 'A' being the weakest bond and 'Z' being the strongest. A weak bond is preferred for grinding harder materials, while a stronger bond is desired for softer materials. A typical weak bond for steel would be in the 'F, G or H' range. A medium hardness would be in the 'I, J or K' range. A stronger bond would be in the 'L, M, or O' range. Hardness is dependent on the grit type, the material being ground, the amount of stock removed, and a number of other factors.

Hardness grades are typically linear. If you increase the hardness by one letter grade (An H to an I for instance) it could give you double the wheel life. Many people mistakenly believe that such a move (from an H to an I) would only be marginal. Don't be misled here: A move of just one or two hardness grades could have a dramatic effect on your process!

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Sanding Belts

Find the right size sanding belt to fit your equipment, as well as the best material for your project with these helpful tips.

Sanding Belts 101 

Flap Discs

Our USA Manufactured Flap Discs offer a premium solution that guarantees a noticeable difference. Read more about our design process and recommendations to find the right flap disc for your needs.

Learn More About Flap Discs 

Sanding Wood

  • On soft woods such as Pine, Aspen or Alder, sand first with #120 and finish with #220. On hardwoods such as Oak, Maple, Birch or Parawood, sand first with #120 and finish no finer than #180.
  • On hardwoods such as Maple or Birch, start with a #120 grit paper and finish with a #150 grit paper to keep the grain open and receptive to stain. Finish the final sanding with a finer grit sandpaper such as #220.

Quick Guide to Sanding Wood